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Upper Division Courses

110P. Principles of Archaeology (4)

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Requisite: course 8. Intended for students interested in conceptual structure of scientific archaeology. Archaeological method and theory with emphasis on what archaeologists do and how and why they do it. Consideration of field strategies, formation processes, chronological frameworks, and other crucial principles of archaeological analysis and interpretation. P/NP or letter grading.


CM110Q. Introduction to Archaeological Sciences (4)
(Same as Ancient Near East CM169.) Lecture, three hours. Basic understanding of newly introduced methods and techniques throughout field of archaeology to implement them and to appreciate and evaluate results of their use by others who have embedded them in their scholarly publications or theoretical models. Systematic instruction in digital data management and mining, scientific analysis of materials (including geological and biochemical techniques), and visual presentation of data and research results (ranging from simple graphs to virtual reality). Concurrently scheduled with course CM210Q. P/NP or letter grading.


111. Theory in Anthropological Archaeology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 8. Method and theory with emphasis on archaeology within context of anthropology. Themes include theoretical developments over last 50 years, structure of archaeological reasoning, and selective survey of work on problems of general anthropological interest. P/NP or letter grading.


112. Old Stone Age Archaeology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 8. Development of Paleolithic cultural traditions in Europe, Africa, Asia, and New World. Emphasis on ordering and interpretation of archaeological data, Pleistocene geology and chronology, and relationship between human cultural and biological evolution. P/NP or letter grading.


113P. Archaeology of North America (4)
Lecture, three hours. Prehistory of North American Indians; evolution of Indian societies from earliest times to (and including) contemporary Indians; approaches and methods of American archaeology. P/NP or letter grading.


113Q. California Archaeology (4)
Lecture, three hours. From earliest Californians through 10,000 years of history, study of diversity in California's original peoples. Aspects of technology, ideology, ecology, and social/political organization. Historic impacts on California Indians by Euro-Americans. P/NP or letter grading.


113R. Southwestern Archaeology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Examination of prehistory of American Southwest from 11,000 years ago to historic times. Emphasis on describing and explaining cultural variation and change, employing evolutionary perspective. Special attention to advent of farming and settled towns, large-scale interactive networks, abandonment of Four Corners area, and historic cultures. P/NP or letter grading.


114L. Archaeology of Chiefdoms (4)
Seminar, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 8. Examination of chiefdom societies in anthropological record, with readings focused on theory and data from archaeological, historical, and ethnographic literature. Illustration of how people in ranked non-state societies created remarkably rich cultures over entire globe beginning several millennia ago in both Old World and Americas. Letter grading.


114P. Ancient Civilizations of Mesoamerica (4)
Lecture, three hours. Archaeology of pre-Hispanic native cultures of Mesoamerica from late Pleistocene through Spanish conquest, with emphasis on formative sociopolitical developments, classic period civilizations, and Aztec society as revealed by archaeology and early Spanish writing. P/NP or letter grading.


114R. Ancient Civilizations of Andean South America (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 8 or 9. Pre-Hispanic and Conquest period native cultures of Andean South America, as revealed by archaeology and early Spanish writing. Incas and their predecessors in Peru, with emphasis on sociopolitical systems, economic patterns, religion, and aesthetic and intellectual achievements. P/NP or letter grading.


M115A. Historical Archaeology: World Perspective (4)
(Same as History M102A.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Designed for juniors/seniors. Historical archaeology requires appreciation of historical sources, archaeology, and material culture. Thematic emphasis, with exploration of breadth of discipline both in Old World and Americas. P/NP or letter grading.


M115B. Historical Archaeology: American Perspective (4)
(Same as History M102B.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Designed for juniors/seniors. Emphasis on historical archaeology in North America, particularly to some practical applications. P/NP or letter grading.


115Q. Politics of Past (4)
Seminar, three hours. Requisite: course 8. Examination of social and cultural context of modern archaeology. Topics include legal frameworks governing archaeological practice, relationships between archaeologists and descendent peoples, and role of archaeology in current politics. P/NP or letter grading.


116. Archaeology of South Asia (4)
Lecture, three hours. Archaeology of Harappan, early historic, and medieval periods in Indian subcontinent. Investigation of large-scale social movements such as Buddhism, as well as consideration of how past is interpreted in present. P/NP or letter grading.


116N. Archaeology of Ancient Civilizations: China (4)
Lecture, three hours. Examination of current developments and key issues in archaeology of early Chinese civilizations, with special focus on development of social complexity and interregional interaction networks, and emergence of early cities, states, and early civilizations. Contextualization of these issues in framework of world prehistory and comparative civilizations, addressing contemporary archaeological theories and methods, as well as major research projects and debates that contribute directly to current interpretations of social changes observed in archaeological record. Letter grading.


116P. Archaeology of Prehistoric China (4)
Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 8. Detailed survey of prehistoric archaeological sequence of China, ranging from early Pleistocene (about two million years ago) to initial rise of Chinese state (around 2100 B.C.). P/NP or letter grading.


M116S. Archaeological Landscapes of China (4)
(Same as Chinese M183.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Declassified space images from Cold War era and open remote sensing data of 21st century provide new opportunities for studying landscape transformation in historical China. Combining lectures, library research, and hands-on analysis of archaeological sites on satellite images, investigation of changing historical and archaeological landscape in China during last 5,000 years. Social processes at various scales, from emergence of early cities to rise of metropolitan centers and formation of imperial landscapes. Letter grading.


117P. Selected Laboratory Topics in Archaeology
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 8. How archaeological research is furthered by specialized analysis of particular classes of cultural remains. Topics may include animal bones, plants, ceramics, rock art. Hands-on experience working with collections and data. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP or letter grading.

117Q. Intensive Laboratory Training in Archaeology (6)

Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: course 8. Archaeologists with special expertise in specific analytical techniques and topics oversee intensive laboratory training on one of following topics: zooarchaeology, ethnobotany, lithic analysis, ceramic analysis, etc. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP or letter grading.


118. Selected Topics in Archaeology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in archaeology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP or letter grading.


M119E. Archaeology of Egypt and Sudan (4)
(Same as Ancient Near East M105.) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, three hours. Ancient Egypt is well known for iconic archaeological sites such as Giza Pyramids and Tomb of Tutankhamun. From these and thousands of less well-known sites, enormous variety of archaeological information can be gained. Through discussion of particular archaeological themes, regions, or sites, examination of methods of prehistoric and historic archaeology and how archaeological information contributes to understanding of social, political, and religious history. Background provided for development of group research projects -- finding resources, data gathering, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and training on how to embark on research in this field. Computer laboratory component included in which student research is performed and presented in time map. P/NP or letter grading.


119P. Cities Past and Present (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 8 or 9. Examination of ancient and modern cities to evaluate how urban form developed and continues to thrive as human social phenomenon. Contemporary observations compared with archaeological case studies, including South America, Asia, Africa, and ancient Near East. Letter grading.


120. Survey of Biological Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 7. Limited to majors and graduate anthropology students. Survey of biological anthropology including all major subareas. (Core course for biological field.) P/NP or letter grading.


121C. Evolution of Genus "Homo" (5)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 7 or 12. Origin and evolution of genus "Homo," including archaic sapiens and Neanderthals. Morphology, ecology, and behavior of these groups. Course ends with appearance of modern humans. May be taken independently for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


122P. Human Osteology (4)
Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours. Examination of human skeletal and muscular systems, concerned with both form and function. Students expected to recognize important anatomical landmarks on human skeleton, identify fragmentary bones, and know origins, insertions, and action of major muscles. How to sex and age skeletons and introduction to paleopathology. Letter grading.


124A. Human Behavioral Ecology (4)
(Formerly numbered 124.) Lecture, three hours. Recommended requisite: course 7 or Life Sciences 1. Survey of research in human behavioral ecology. Review of natural and sexual selection, kin selection, and reciprocal altruism. Emphasis on current empirical studies of modern human behavior from evolutionary perspective, including social organization, sexual division of labor, parenting strategies, conflict, and cooperation. P/NP or letter grading.


124B. Evolutionary Psychology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Recommended requisite: course 7 or Life Sciences 1. Survey of research in evolutionary psychology. Review of relevant theory in evolution and genetics. Emphasis on empirical studies of modern human behavior from evolutionary perspective, including social behavior, decision making, language, culture, and child development. P/NP or letter grading.


124P. Evolution of Human Sexual Behavior (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: course 7 or 12. Examination of human sexual relations and social behavior from evolutionary perspective. Emphasis on theories and evidence for differences between men and women in their patterns of growth, maturation, fertility, mortality, parenting, and relations with members of opposite sex. Letter grading.


M125A. Great Adaptations: Origins of Complexity in Nature (4)
(Formerly numbered 125A.) (Same as Ecology and Evolutionary Biology M171.) Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 7 or Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 13 or 120 or Life Sciences 1. Evolution of complex adaptations in nature. Examination of fundamental processes underlying natural selection and evolution of adaptation: Darwin's postulates, constraints on adaptation, levels of explanation in biology, methods for identifying adaptations. Evaluation of examples of complex adaptations in nature. Letter grading.


126. Selected Topics in Biological Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in biological anthropology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP or letter grading.


M127. Animal Communication (5)
(Same as Applied Linguistics CM127 and Communication Studies M127.) Lecture, four hours. Designed for Anthropology, Applied Linguistics, and Communication Studies majors. Evolution, functions, design, and diversity of animal communication systems such as bird song, dolphin calls, whale song, primate social signals, and human language. Letter grading.


128A. Primate Behavior Nonhuman to Human (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Designed for juniors/seniors. Review of primate behavior as known from laboratory and field studies. Theoretical issues of animal behavior, with special reference to nonhuman primates. Discussion of human behavior as product of such evolutionary processes. P/NP or letter grading.


129Q. Paleopathology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Designed for juniors/seniors. Evidence of disease and trauma, as preserved in skeletal remains of ancient and modern human populations. Discussions of medical procedures (trepanation), health status, ethnic mutilation (cranial deformation, footbinding), cannibalism, and sacrifice and roles such activities have played in human societies. Letter grading.


130. Study of Culture (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Requisite: course 9. Designed for juniors/seniors. Twentieth-century elaboration and development of concept of culture. Examination of five major paradigms: culture as human capacity, as patterns and products of behavior, as systems of meaning and cognition, as generative structure and semiotic system, as component in social action and reality construction. (Core course for cultural field.) P/NP or letter grading.


131. Culture: What Makes It All Work (4)
Lecture, three hours. Preparation: two lower division social sciences courses (may be from different departments). Examination of some basic questions addressed by anthropologists in their study of what is meant by culture. Consideration of theories of culture and evolutionary origins of culture. Review of new analytic methods that allow students to begin to do quasi-experimental research into nature of culture and introduction to multiagent simulation as framework for modeling how culture can be both supra-organic and embedded in minds of culture bearers. P/NP or letter grading.


133F. Anthropology of Food (4)
Lecture, three hours. Recommended requisite: course 9. Production, consumption, and distribution of food, with particular emphasis on culture of food. Food is wonderful means to look at range of topics: ecological history, class, poverty, hunger, ethnicity, nationalism, capitalism, gender, race, and sexuality. Letter grading.


133P. Visual Anthropology: Documentary Photography (4)
Lecture, three hours. Photographs in anthropology serve many purposes: as primary data, illustrations of words in books, documentation for disappearing cultures, evidence of fieldwork, material objects for museum exhibitions, and even works of art. Topics include relationships between subject and treatment of image, between art photography and ethnographic documentation, role of museum photograph and caption, social practice of taking pictures, and case study on photographing Middle East and North Africa. P/NP or letter grading.


133Q. Symbolic Systems (4)
Lecture, three hours. Designed for juniors/seniors. Analysis of anthropological research and theory on cultural systems of thought, behavior, and communication expressed in symbolic mode (as distinguished from discursive, instrumental, and causal modes). Methods for study of symbolic meaning, including experiential approach. P/NP or letter grading.


133R. Aesthetic Systems (4)
Lecture, three hours. Designed for juniors/seniors. Provides framework for cross-cultural understanding of aesthetic phenomena that meets requirements of anthropological research. Human capacities for aesthetic experience; sociocultural formation of aesthetic production; ethno-aesthetics; experiential dimension of aesthetic production. Letter grading.


133S. Ethnomathematics and Anthropology of Numeration (4)
Lecture, three hours. Counting systems such as one, two, three, many or modern equivalent of one, two, three, infinity are widespread in human societies. Counting things is important part of everyday life. But indigenous thinking goes far beyond pragmatics of counting, and conceptual systems underlying counting are integrated with concepts people have about themselves and their societies. Numeracy is product of social life and not just reflection of one's experience with physical world. Exploration of different ways that indigenous mathematical thinking is embedded in human societies and cultures, ranging from use of fractals in African art to algebra of kinship terminologies to cosmological systems formulated around concepts of numbers. P/NP or letter grading.


M134. Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality: Homosexualities (4)
(Same as Honors Collegium M129 and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies M134.) Seminar, three hours. Comparative analysis of role of environment, history, and culture in structuring of patterns of same-sex erotic behavior in Asia, Africa, Middle East, Pacific, Caribbean, and aboriginal America. P/NP or letter grading.


135A. Introduction to Psychological Anthropology: Historical Development (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Enforced requisite: course 9. Limited to juniors/seniors. Survey of field of psychological anthropology, with emphasis on early foundations and historical development of field. Topics include study of personality, pathology and deviance, altered states of consciousness, cognition, motivation, and emotion in different cultural settings. P/NP or letter grading.


135B. Introduction to Psychological Anthropology: Current Topics and Research (5)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for juniors/seniors. Survey of field of psychological anthropology, with emphasis on current topics and research. Topics include study of personality, pathology and deviance, altered states of consciousness, cognition, motivation, and emotion in different cultural settings. P/NP or letter grading.


135S. Anthropology of Deviance and Abnormality (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 9. Relationship between culture and recognition of, responses toward, and forms of deviant and abnormal behavior. Letter grading.


135T. Psychoanalysis and Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Exploration of mutual relations between anthropology and psychoanalysis, considering both theory and method. History of and current developments in psychoanalysis; anthropological critiques of psychoanalytic theory and method, toward cross-cultural psychoanalytic approach. Letter grading.


136Q. Laboratory for Naturalistic Observations: Developing Skills and Techniques (4)
Laboratory, three hours. Skill of observing and recording behavior in natural settings, with emphasis on field training and practice in observing behavior. Group and individual projects. Discussion of some uses of observations and their implications for research in social sciences. P/NP or letter grading.


137. Selected Topics in Cultural Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Study of selected topics in cultural anthropology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


139. Field Methods in Cultural Anthropology (5)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for juniors/seniors. Introduction to skills and tools of data ascertainment through fieldwork in cultural anthropology. Emphasis on techniques, methods, and concepts of ethnographical research and how basic observational information is systematized for presentation, analysis, and cross-cultural comparison. Letter grading.


M139P. Fieldwork in Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities (4)
(Same as Asian American Studies M143A.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction to qualitative research methods and application of techniques in data collection, analysis, and reporting. Critical reflection of issues related to identity, migration, multiculturalism, tourism, and indigenous rights. Field excursions and guest lecturers from local community included. Given in Hawai'i. P/NP or letter grading.


M140. Language in Culture (5)
(Same as Linguistics M146.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; fieldwork, two hours. Requisite: course 33 or Linguistics 20. Study of language as aspect of culture; relation of habitual thought and behavior to language; and language and classification of experience. Holistic approach to study of language, with emphasis on relationship of linguistic anthropology to fields of biological, cultural, and social anthropology, as well as archaeology. (Core course for linguistics field.) P/NP or letter grading.


141. Ethnography of Everyday Speech (5)
Lecture, three hours; fieldwork. Requisite: course 33. Designed for juniors/seniors. Course has two interrelated objectives: (1) to introduce students to ethnography of communication -- description and analysis of situated communicative behavior -- and sociocultural knowledge that it reflects and (2) to train students to recognize, describe, and analyze relevant linguistic, proxemic, and kinesic aspects of face-to-face interaction. Letter grading.


M142R. Culture of Jazz Aesthetics (4)
(Same as Ethnomusicology M130 and World Arts and Cultures M136.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 9 or 33 or Ethnomusicology 20A or 20B or 20C or World Arts and Cultures 20. Aesthetics of jazz from point of view of musicians who shaped jazz as art form in 20th century. Listening to and interacting with professional jazz musicians who answer questions and give musical demonstrations. Analytical resources and historical knowledge of musicians and ethnomusicologists combined with those interested in jazz as cultural tradition. P/NP or letter grading.


C144. Native American Languages and Cultures (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 33 or American Indian Studies M10. Introduction and comparative analysis of sociocultural aspects of language use in Native North American Indian speech communities. Specific foci include both micro- and macro-sociolinguistic topics. Micro-sociolinguistic topics are comprised of such issues as multilingualism, cultural differences regarding appropriate communicative behavior and variation within speech communities (e.g., male and female speech, baby talk, ceremonial speech, etc.). Macro-sociolinguistic considerations include language contact and its relationship to language change and language in American Indian education. Concurrently scheduled with course C243P. P/NP or letter grading.


147. Selected Topics in Linguistic Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in linguistic anthropology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


M148W. Talk and Body (5)
(Same as Applied Linguistics M161W and Communication Studies M123W.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: English Composition 3 or 3H or English as a Second Language 36. Relationship between language and human body raises host of interesting topics. New approaches to phenomena such as embodiment become possible when body is analyzed, not as isolated entity, but as visible agent whose talk and action are lodged within both processes of human interaction and rich settings where people pursue courses of action that count in their lives. Satisfies Writing II requirement. Letter grading.


149A. Language and Identity (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 33. Language as social phenomenon. Introduction to several angles from which language use can be critically examined as integral to interactions between individuals and between social groups. Letter grading.


149B. Gender and Language in Society (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Requisite: course 33. Examination of role language plays in social construction of gender identities and ways in which gender impacts language use and ideologies. Letter grading.


149C. Multilingualism: Communities and Histories in Contact (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 33. Examination of communicative, political, and poetic aspects of use of two or more languages (multilingualism) by individuals and by groups. Broader themes in social theory, anthropological inquiry, sociolinguistics, and literary studies in lectures to contextualize class readings. Letter grading.


149D. Language, Culture, and Education (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 33. Examination of various ways in which culture, and language in particular, influence not only educational processes and outcomes, but also very conceptions of what normal development processes and desirable educational outcomes are. Letter grading.


M149E. Language Socialization (4)
(Same as Applied Linguistics M125.) Seminar, four hours. Exploration of process of socialization through language, and socialization to use language across lifespan, across communities of practice within single society, and across different ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Examination of ways in which verbal interaction between novices and experts is structured linguistically and culturally. Letter grading.


149F. Language and Social Organization through Life Cycle (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 33. Examination of forms of participation and talk-in-interaction across various phases of life cycle from birth to old age, using videotaped interactions of naturally occurring activities. How language and interaction within specific contexts are used to constitute identity and how interaction order resulting from face-to-face interaction provides building blocks for larger formations that arise from such activities. Letter grading.


149SL. Gender and Language across Communities (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 33. Examination of how language practices contribute to expression of gendered identities in different social groups and situations. Completion of 20 hours of service learning in community service program coordinated through Center for Community Learning required. Active participation in organized service that is conducted in and meets needs of communities. Letter grading.


150. Study of Social Systems (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Enforced requisite: course 9. Introduction to more specialized social anthropology courses. Evaluation of variation in sociocultural systems, with special emphasis on forms of inequality. Basic frameworks of anthropological analysis; historical context and development of social anthropology discipline. Letter grading.


M151. Marriage, Family, and Kinship (4)
(Same as Gender Studies M151.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 9. Examination of understandings of kinship in cross-cultural perspective and impact of kinship on interpersonal relationships, gender roles, and sociocultural systems. Readings from popular materials and formal ethnographic accounts. P/NP or letter grading.


153P. Economic Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 9. Introduction to anthropological perspectives for interpretation of economic life and institutions. Economic facts to be placed in their larger social, political, and cultural contexts; examination of modes of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services in their relation to social networks, power structures, and institutions of family, kinship, and class. P/NP or letter grading.


M154P. Gender Systems: North America (4)
(Same as Gender Studies M154P.) Lecture, three hours. Recommended preparation: prior anthropology or gender studies courses. Designed for junior/senior social sciences majors. Comparative study of women's lives and gender systems in North American cultures from anthropological perspective. Critical review of relevant theoretical and practical issues using ethnography, case study, and presentations. P/NP or letter grading.


M154Q. Gender Systems: Global (4)
(Same as Gender Studies M154Q.) Lecture, three hours. Recommended preparation: prior anthropology or gender studies courses. Designed for junior/senior social sciences majors. Comparative study of gender systems globally from anthropological perspective. Outline of material conditions of women's lives in world -- gender division of labor, relationship of gender to state, and colonialism and resistance movements. P/NP or letter grading.


M155. Women's Voices: Their Critique of Anthropology of Japan (4)
(Same as Gender Studies M155.) Lecture, three hours. Preparation: introductory sociocultural anthropology course. Anthropology of Japan has long viewed Japan as homogeneous whole. Restoration of diversity and contradiction in it by listening to voices of Japanese women in various historical contexts. P/NP or letter grading.


M155Q. Women and Social Movements (4)
(Same as Gender Studies M155Q.) Lecture/discussion, three hours. Recommended preparation: prior anthropology or gender studies courses. Comparative studies of social movements (e.g., nationalist, socialist, liberal/reform), beginning with Russia and China and including Cuba, Algeria, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Iran. Analysis of women's participation in social transformations and centrality of gender interests. P/NP or letter grading.


156. Anthropology of Religion (4)
Lecture, three hours. Survey of various methodologies in comparative study of religious ideologies and action systems, including understanding particular religions through descriptive and structural approaches, and identification of social and psychological factors that may account for variation in religious systems cross-culturally. P/NP or letter grading.


157. Selected Topics in Social Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in social anthropology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


158. Hunting and Gathering Societies (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 9. Survey of hunting and gathering societies. Examination of their distinctive features from both ecological and cultural viewpoints. Discussion of possibility of developing general framework for synthesizing these two viewpoints. Use of this synthesis as basis for illustrating relevance of hunting and gathering societies as understanding of complex societies. P/NP or letter grading.


M158Q. Past People and Their Lessons for Our Own Future (5)
(Same as Geography M153 and Honors Collegium M152.) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Examination of modern and past people that met varying fates, as background to examination of how other modern people are coping or failing to cope with similar issues. P/NP or letter grading.


159. Warfare and Conflict (4)
Lecture, three hours. Examination of conflict and violent confrontation as these have been treated in anthropological literature. Cross-cultural comparison of institutions such as raids, feuds, ritual warfare. Consideration of application of anthropology to study of militaries, modern warfare, and large-scale ethnic conflict. Letter grading.


M159P. Constructing Race (4)
(Same as Afro-American Studies M159P and Asian American Studies M169.) Lecture, three hours. Examination of race, socially constructed category, from anthropological perspective. Consideration of development of racial categories over time and in different regions, racial passing, multiracial identity in U.S., whiteness, race in popular culture, and race and identity. P/NP or letter grading.


161. Development Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Requisite: course 9. Designed for juniors/seniors. Comparative study of planned and unplanned development, in particular as it affects rural societies. Emphasis on impact of capital, technological change and gender differences, economic differentiation and class, urban/rural relations, and migration. Discussion of theoretical issues in light of case studies. P/NP or letter grading.


M162. Language Endangerment and Linguistic Revitalization (4)
(Same as American Indian Studies M162.) Lecture, three hours; activity, one hour. Requisites: course 33, American Indian Studies M10. Examination of causes and consequences of current worldwide loss of linguistic diversity and revelation of kinds of efforts that members of threatened heritage language communities have produced in their attempt to revitalize these languages. Projected loss of as many as half of world's languages by end of 21st century can only be explained as outcome of such factors as nationalism, global economic forces, language ideological change, and language shift away from smaller indigenous and tribal languages. Since loss of such languages means both reduction of cultural as well as linguistic diversity, many affected communities have engaged in various language renewal practices. Examination of some diverse strategies that have been attempted, including immersion, language and culture classes, master-apprentice, interactive multimedia, mass media approaches, and language policy-reform approaches. Evaluation of effectiveness of these measures and of very imagery used to discuss language endangerment. P/NP or letter grading.


163. Selected Topics in Applied Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in applied anthropology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


M164. Afro-American Experience in U.S. (4)
(Same as Afro-American Studies M164.) Lecture, three hours. Promotes understanding of contemporary sociocultural forms among Afro-Americans in U.S. by presenting comparative and diachronic perspective on Afro-American experience in New World. Emphasis on utilization of anthropological concepts and methods in understanding origins and maintenance of particular patterns of adaptation among black Americans. P/NP or letter grading.


167. Urban Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Designed for junior/senior social sciences majors. Introduction to modern industrial cities and urban life. Examination of notion of urban space in context of social relations by drawing from historical and cross-cultural urban ethnographies. Urban space is created according to needs of capital and actions of urban subjects. Exploration of ways in which class, gender, race, and geography shape or contest perspectives and priorities on urban issues. P/NP or letter grading.


C169R. Repatriation of Native American Human Remains and Cultural Objects (4)
Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour. Native Americans have recently been successful in obtaining passage of federal and state laws repatriating human remains and cultural objects to them. Examination of this phenomenon. Concurrently scheduled with course C269R. Letter grading.


171. Sub-Saharan Africa (4)
Lecture, three hours. Issues of ecology and political economy; continuing impacts of colonialism, nationalism, and current challenges for development; changes in social relations. Examination of Africa's significance to development of anthropology. Cultural background for understanding events in contemporary Africa provided. Letter grading.


M171P. Culture Area of Maghrib (North Africa) (4)

(Same as Arabic M171 and History M108C.) Lecture, three hours. Designed for juniors/seniors. Introduction to North Africa, especially Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, also known as Maghrib or Tamazgha. Topics include changing notions of personal, tribal, ethnic, linguistic and religious identities; colonialism; gender and legal rights, changing representations of Islam, and religions in region?s public spaces. P/NP or letter grading.


172A. Native North Americans (4)
Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Designed for juniors/seniors. Consideration of diversity of Native American societies north of Mexico, including their origins, formation, and development. Particular attention to subsistence systems and their relationship to social institutions and cultural practices, especially religion. Letter grading.


172B. Change and Continuity among Native North Americans (4)
Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 172A. Consideration of tremendous change Native American societies and cultures have undergone since European contact. Emphasis on patterns of adaptation and continuity as Native Americans confronted colonization and its implications. Letter grading.


173Q. Latin American Communities (4)
Lecture, three hours. Overview of social and cultural anthropology of small communities in Latin America. Similarities and contrasts in social organization and interpersonal relations described in context of economic, political, and cultural environments. P/NP or letter grading.


174P. Ethnography of South American Indians (4)
Lecture, three hours. Introduction to ethnography of South American Indians, with special emphasis on Lowland South America. Survey of history and development of man and society in this world area and examination of exemplary cultures symptomatic of various levels of cultural achievement. P/NP or letter grading.


175Q. Ideology and Social Change in Contemporary China (4)
Lecture, three hours. Introduction to sociocultural changes in China from 1949 to present. Topics include ideology and politics in everyday life, social stratification and mobility, cultural construction of socialist person, changes in courtship, marriage, and family, and political economy of reforms in post-Mao era. P/NP or letter grading.


175R. Societies of Central Asia (4)
Lecture, three hours. Overview of culture and society among diverse peoples of Inner Asia, including Mongolia, Tibet, and Soviet Central Asia. Topics include environment and economic adaptation, politics in traditional isolation and within framework of recent national integration, kinship, forms of marriage and status of women, religion and social order in Hindu/Buddhist culture contact zone, and current problems of modernization. P/NP or letter grading.


175S. Japan (4)
Lecture, three hours. Overview of contemporary Japanese society. General introduction, kinship, marriage and family life, social mobility and education, norms and values, religions, patterns of interpersonal relations, social deviance. P/NP or letter grading.


176. Culture Area of Middle East (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of Middle East has suggested many theories as to developmental history of humankind, evolution of human society, birth of monotheism, and origin of agriculture, trade, and cities. Presentation of anthropological material relevant to understanding Middle East as culture area, and Islam as basis of its shared tradition. Letter grading.


177. Cultures of Pacific (4)
Lecture, three hours. Four major culture areas of Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. General geographical features, prehistory, and language distribution of whole region. Distinctive sociocultural features of each culture area presented in context of their adaptive significance. P/NP or letter grading.


M177P. Ethnic Identity and Ethnic Relations in Hawai'i (4)
(Same as Asian American Studies M143A.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Continuing construction and expression of ethnic identity in various cultural forms and social contexts in Hawai'i. Overview of theoretical approaches to and basic concepts in study of ethnic identity and ethnic relations. Discussion of historical and contemporary aspects of ethnic identity and ethnic relations in Hawai'i. Given in Hawai'i. P/NP or letter grading.


179. Selected Topics in Regional Cultures (4)
Lecture, three hours. Study of selected topics in regional cultures. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.


181. Critical Social Theory (4)
Seminar, three hours. Requisite: course 9. Limited to juniors/seniors. In-depth introduction to work of classic social theorists, Karl Marx and Max Weber. Examination of their influence on anthropology. Exploration of recent attempts to synthesize both perspectives. Letter grading.


182. History of Anthropology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Brief survey of development of Western social science, particularly anthropology, from Greek and Roman thought to emergence of evolutionary theory and concept of culture in late 19th century. "Root paradigm" of Western social science and its influence on such notables as Durkheim, Freud, Hall, Lombroso, Marx, Piaget, Terman, and others. Consideration of how this influences ethnocentrism and Eurocentrism, sexism, racism, perception of deviance, and view of culture in general. P/NP or letter grading.


185A. Theoretical Behavioral Ecology (4)
Lecture, three hours. Preparation: one upper division introduction to behavioral ecology course, one university-level mathematics course (preferably calculus or probability and statistics). Students expected to do simple algebra, elementary calculus, and probability. Rich body of mathematical theory describing evolution of animal behavior exists. Introduction to this body of theory at pace and mathematical level that allows students to grasp this information. Within each area of theory (e.g., kin selection, optimal foraging theory, etc.), presentation of basic corpus of models so that students understand assumptions that underlie models, and how main results are derived. Presentations supplemented by survey of results printed in literature, especially those derived using more advanced methods. Letter grading.


186P. Models of Cultural Evolution (4)
Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 7. Introduction to Darwinian models of cultural evolution. How organic evolution has shaped capacity for culture. How processes of cultural transmission and modification explain cultural variation in space and time. P/NP or letter grading.


188SA. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators (1)
Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to discuss selected USIE seminar topic, conduct preparatory research, and begin preparation of syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.


188SB. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators (1)
Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SA. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to finalize course syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.


188SC. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators (2)
Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SB. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor while facilitating USIE 88S course. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.


189. Advanced Honors Seminars (1)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to undergraduate lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.


189HC. Honors Contracts (1)
Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to upper division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.


191. Variable Topics Research Seminars: Anthropology (4)
Seminar, three hours. Research seminar on selected topics in anthropology. Reading, discussion, and development of culminating project. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP or letter grading.


191HA. Beginning Seminar (4)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to anthropology honors program students. Survey of major research strategies in anthropology to aid honors students in developing research proposals. Letter grading.


191HB. Field Methods (4)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to anthropology honors program students. Survey of major field methods in anthropology to prepare students to conduct their own field research. Letter grading.


191HC. Data Analysis (4)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to anthropology honors program students. Survey of major forms of data analysis in anthropology to aid honors students in analysis of their own research data. Letter grading.


191HD. Writing for Anthropology (4)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to anthropology honors program students. Teaching of writing skills, with focus on how to write honors theses. Letter grading.


191HE. Writing for Publication and Conference Presentations (4)
Seminar, three hours. Limited to anthropology honors program students. Preparation of honors theses for publication and for conference presentations and posters. Letter grading.


193. Journal Club Seminars: Anthropology (1)
Seminar, one hour. Limited to undergraduate students. Discussion of current readings in discipline. May be linked with speaker series. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP grading.


194. Research Group Seminars: Anthropology (1)
Seminar, one hour. Limited to undergraduate students who are part of research group or internship. Discussion of research methods and current literature in discipline or of research of faculty members or students. May meet concurrently with graduate research seminar. May be repeated for credit with topic change. P/NP grading.


197. Individual Studies in Anthropology (2 to 8)
Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Individual intensive study, with scheduled meetings to be arranged between faculty member and student. Assigned readings and tangible evidence of mastery of subject matter (e.g., paper or other product) required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.


199. Directed Research in Anthropology (2 to 8)
Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.